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Telnet Protocol Specification. STD 8. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Palo Alto Networks. Retrieved 14 September Time Protocol. Internet Name Server. July I-D opsawg-tacacs Xerox Network System”. DNS Implementation and Specification. March Assigned Numbers. January TFTP Protocol revision 2. The Internet Gopher Protocol a distributed document search and retrieval protocol.
This protocol assumes a reliable data stream; TCP is assumed. The Finger User Information Protocol. In Thomson, Martin ed. I-D ietf-quic-transport. Clifford September When contacting a Kerberos server KDC Acknowledgements to John Kohl et al. April TCP port is reserved for hosts which implement this standard. Initially, the server host starts the Ph service by listening on TCP port The Remote User Telnet Service.
February Post Office Protocol: Version 2. This protocol assumes a reliable data stream such as provided by TCP or any similar protocol. Post Office Protocol: Version 3. Post Office Protocol – Version 3. Johns, Michael C. Identification Protocol. Acknowledgement is given to Dan Bernstein in section 7, “Acknowledgements”, page 8. The Identification Protocol a. Authentication Server. The Authentication Server Protocol provides a means to determine the identity of a user of a particular TCP connection.
Postel, Jon ed. Simple File Transfer Protocol. Network News Transfer Protocol. NNTP specifies a protocol for the distribution, inquiry, retrieval, and posting of news articles When used via Internet TCP, the contact port assigned for this service is Acknowledgements to Internet Activities Board in section 2, “Acknowledgements”, page 4. The Internet Message Access Protocol The BFTP program Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol. This memo defines a simple application-layer protocol by which management information for a gateway may be inspected or altered by logically remote users.
An authentication protocol entity responds to protocol messages received at UDP port on the host with which it is associated. Pcmail is a distributed mail system providing mail service to an arbitrary number of users A protocol entity receives messages at UDP port on the host Messages which report traps should be received on UDP port for further processing. Cisco published The Open Group.
Acknowledgements to Kirk Lougheed et al. Retrieved 16 March LDM Reference. Use of the LDM requires that any host listed in its access control list be allowed a TCP connection to port on the localhost.
If the localhost is behind a firewall, the firewall must allow TCP access to port Microsoft TechNet published Internet Engineering Task Force. Historically, port was briefly registered as the “smtps” port.
This registration made no sense, as the SMTP transport MX infrastructure has no way to specify a port, so port 25 is always used. As a result, the registration was revoked and was subsequently reassigned to a different service It’s and some email is still sent as cleartext”. The Register. Situation Publishing. Brent June [1st pub. Building Internet Firewalls Second ed. ISBN WIPO published Modbus Organisation Inc. Internet X. VMware Knowledge Base.
Red Hat published TCP port BIND 9’s default control channel port, On WSUS 3. Described protocol is assigned by IANA for this port, and is : standardized, specified, or widely used for such. Described protocol is not assigned by IANA for this port, but is : standardized, specified, or widely used for such.
Described protocol is assigned by IANA for this port,  but is not : standardized, specified, or widely used for such. Described protocol is not : assigned by IANA for this port, standardized, specified, or widely used for such.
Port is reserved by IANA,  generally to prevent collision having its previous use removed. In programming APIs not in communication between hosts , requests a system-allocated dynamic port . Echo Protocol  . Yes . Discard Protocol . Wake-on-LAN . Active Users systat service  . Daytime Protocol . Previously netstat service  . Message Send Protocol  . Secure Shell SSH ,  secure logins, file transfers scp , sftp and port forwarding.
Telnet protocol—unencrypted text communications  . Time Protocol . Host Name Server Protocol . WHOIS protocol   . Gopher protocol . Finger protocol   . TorPark onion routing [ verification needed ]. TorPark control [ verification needed ]. Kerberos    authentication system. PointCast dotcom . NIC host name . CCSO Nameserver . Authentication Service auth , the predecessor to identification protocol.
Used to determine a user’s identity of a particular TCP connection. Simple File Transfer Protocol . DCE endpoint resolution. Also used by DCOM. Network PostScript print server. Quick Mail Transfer Protocol  [ self-published source ]. ANSI Z Unidata LDM near real-time data distribution protocol  [ self-published source ]  [ self-published source ]. Uninterruptible power supply UPS. Centro Software ERP ports. GO-Global remote access and application publishing software.
Citadel , multiservice protocol for dedicated clients for the Citadel groupware system. Rexec , Remote Process Execution. Who . Remote Shell , used to execute non-interactive commands on a remote system Remote Shell, rsh, remsh. Syslog ,  used for system logging. Remote procedure call RPC. FileMaker 6. DHCP Failover protocol . Doom , the first online first-person shooter.
MS Exchange Routing. Kerberos administration . SpamAssassin spamd daemon. Certificate Management Protocol . Adobe Flash . DHCP Failover protocol. VMware ESXi  . Lustre file system  Protocol data.
ThinLinc web-based administration interface . Teradata database management system Teradata server. Reserved . Microsoft DCOM services. WebObjects . Assigned [note 2] . Yes . The cajo project Free dynamic transparent distributed computing in Java. QuickTime Streaming Server administration . Festival Speech Synthesis System server . Strapi . Qubes Manufacturing Execution System.
Internet Content Adaptation Protocol. Garena game client [ citation needed ]. Oracle database default listener, in future releases [ when? Apache Derby Network Server . Eclipse Target Communication Framework . Gadu-Gadu direct client-to-client [ citation needed ].
Pervasive PSQL . DarkComet remote administration tool RAT [ citation needed ]. TCP port must not be used. Old radacct port, [ when? Perforce . Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol L2F. KDE Connect . America’s Army , a massively multiplayer online game MMO . Novell ZENworks  . Emergency management information system. Microsoft Message Queuing.
Node-RED . Gemini , a lightweight, collaboratively designed protocol, striving to fill the gap between Gopher and HTTP . Artemis: Spaceship Bridge Simulator . Civilization IV multiplayer . WebHost Manager default . Warzone multiplayer [ citation needed ].
Zephyr Notification Service server. Apache ZooKeeper default client port [ citation needed ]. Apple Push Notification Service  . Apple Push Notification Service, feedback service  . ESET anti-virus updates . DirectAdmin Access . ESET Remote administrator .
ArmA multiplayer . Halo: Combat Evolved multiplayer host . Halo: Combat Evolved multiplayer listener . Ghost blogging platform . Docker Swarm cluster management communications  [ self-published source ]. KGS Go Server . CVS version control system password-based server. IEC , used to send electric power telecontrol messages between two systems via directly connected data circuits.
OrientDB database listening for binary client connections . Oracle database listening for insecure client connections to the listener, replaces port [ when?
Oracle database listening for SSL client connections to the listener. NetFS communication . Ultima Online servers [ citation needed ].
DICT . SQL Anywhere database server  . XBT Tracker. Ruby on Rails development default . Meteor development default  [ failed verification ]. Resilio Sync ,  spun from BitTorrent Sync. Create React App, script to create single-page React applications . BlackBerry Enterprise Server communication protocol .
Squid caching web proxy . WhiskerControl research control protocol. Net Assistant ,  a predecessor to Apple Remote Desktop. Apple Remote Desktop 2. MySQL database system . Eggdrop , an IRC bot default port . OpenOCD gdbserver . PlayStation Network . SMTP alternate . Apcupsd Information Port . Distcc , distributed compiler . Subversion SVN  version control system.
Some Blizzard games . CimTrak registered port. Harman Professional HiQnet protocol. Diameter base protocol RFC Oracle Enterprise Manager Remote Agent. Warframe online interaction [ citation needed ]. OpenTTD game masterserver and content service. Protocol information and warnings [ clarification needed ].
Minger Email Address Verification Protocol . Xgrid . Microsoft Remote Web Workplace administration. Teradici PCoIP. ManageSieve . AWS protocol for cloud remoting solution. Couch Potato Android app . NATS server default port . Aleph One , a computer game.
Docker implementations, redistributions, and setups default  [ needs update? Viber . Referral Whois RWhois Protocol . Metasploit ‘s default listener port . OpenOCD Telnet . Armagetron Advanced server default. Sinatra default server port in development mode HTTP. Identity Registration Protocol.
Default for older versions of eMule . Default bootstap port to use on device to talk to Appium. IP Flow Information Export. UPnP —Windows network device interoperability. FlightGear multiplayer . Synology Inc. Flask Development Webserver. Docker Registry . Apple’s AirPlay Receiver . League of Legends , a multiplayer online battle arena video game . FileMaker — name binding and transport . Neverwinter Nights. AOL Instant Messenger protocol.
Outlaws , a first-person shooter video game [ citation needed ]. Certificate Management over CMS . Kega Fusion, a Sega multi-console emulator  . PostgreSQL  database system.
Cisco Unified Video Advantage [ citation needed ]. Hotline tracker server connection. Hewlett-Packard Data Protector [ citation needed ].
Port though often changed during installation. A compressor with a long release time, which is used to keep the volume of the audio at a consistent level. In the studio, engineers use automation on their consoles or computers so various parameters will change automatically at different times during multitrack recording and playback.
This pre-programming feature makes it easier to create those changes than attempting to perform them all manually in real time. Abbreviated Aux Return or Return The input on a console or DAW that returns the effected signal sent through the auxiliary send back into the channel mix. Abbreviated Aux Send or Send A control to adjust the signal level being sent from the input channel on a console or DAW to auxiliary equipment or plug-ins through the auxiliary bus.
This is typically used for creating an effects loop that processes a portion of the signal, then returns it into the mix through the auxiliary return. An imaginary line around which a device operates. For example: in microphone use, the axis is an imaginary line coming out from the front of the microphone in the direction of motion of the diaphragm, delineating the optimum location for the mic to pick up the sound.
Refers to either 1 The ambient noise in a room unrelated to the instrument s or vocal s being recorded; or 2 The system noise unrelated to the recorded signal. All electronics emit a level of noise.
A cable consisting of three wires two signal wires and a ground wire and two connectors. The two signal wires carry the same signal in opposite polarities, providing protection against interference and noise in a balanced system.
A device, circuit or plug-in that allows a narrow band of frequencies to pass through the circuit, rejecting or attenuating frequencies that are either higher or lower than the specified range. A device, circuit or plug-in that attenuates a narrow band of frequencies in the signal, allowing frequencies outside the band to pass. The exact opposite of a band pass filter. In other words, a mixed track containing only the instrumental parts of the song. In music notation, bar is another term for measure—a specified period of time containing a certain number of beats, and marked by bar lines on each side of the written measure.
A microphone placement technique in which a microphone is placed close to a reflective surface. When done correctly, barrier miking ensures that both the direct and reflected sounds reach the microphone simultaneously, preventing phase cancellation between the two.
A type of loudspeaker cabinet design in which a port opening in the speaker cabinet enhances bass frequencies. The principle is that the sound pressure generated by the back of the speaker cone inside the cabinet is routed out the port at the front of the cabinet, mixed with the sound coming from the front of the woofer.
Changing the port size and position will greatly change the character of the low frequencies. A phenomenon found in loudspeakers in which higher frequencies are projected straight out of the loudspeaker, rather than dispersing along with the lower frequencies. When you stand on-axis in front of the speaker, it sounds as though it is only reproducing the high frequencies, rather than the mids or lows.
This phenomenon is alleviated by routing the high frequncies through horns in the loudspeaker. The process of adjusting the tempo variations in a recorded piece of music to fit the set tempo of the project. In a DAW, this is done using time stretching tools and cuts to synchronize the transients to the appropriate tempo markers.
This technique is often used, for example, to reconcile a drum or bass performance that was recorded without a click track. A technique predominantly used by DJs to synchronize the tempos of two recorded tracks, generally through the use of time stretching and pitch shifting tools, to create a seamless transition from one song into another.
The number of steady even pulses in music occurring in one minute, defining the tempo of the song. A technique in which high and low frequencies in a speaker or speaker system are driven by two separate amplifiers. A microphone pickup pattern which is most sensitive to picking up sounds directly in front and back of the mic, effectively rejecting sounds coming from the sides. In digital recording, the number of computer bits used to describe each sample. The greater the bitrate, the greater the dynamic range of the sampled sound.
The quality and resolution of an audio sample are described as a combination of sample rate and bitrate. The mixing of multiple sounds or channels together to form one sound, or mixing the left and right signals together. This can be done in real-time or analog by playing the tracks through the console and recording them onto separate tracks, or digitally through a digital audio workstation.
Bouncing was once used frequently by engineers to free up additional tracks for recording, but in digital workstations where tracks are virtually unlimited, this practice is basically obsolete. Today, engineers typically bounce tracks for the purpose of creating a preliminary or final mix of a song.
An abbreviation of Beats Per Minute, the number of steady even pulses in music occurring in one minute which defines the tempo. A technique of feeding a single input to both channels of an amplifier, then summing them into one, thereby effectively doubling the amplifier power supplied to the signal.
A type of phase cancellation in which two identical signals or frequencies, having the same amplitude but opposite polarity, cancel one another out. Most commonly used in the context of musical instrument frequencies. An audio pathway by which one or more signals, usually from different sources, are routed to a designated place. Because busses are highly connected to signal flow, they serve a broad range of purposes in audio applications. A group of one or more insulated conductors, optical fibers, or a combination of both within an enveloping jacket, typically for transmitting electrical signals of different types.
Cable that is ready for installation in specific applications and usually terminated with connectors. An electronic device made of two plates separated by an insulator, designed to store electrostatic energy. The capacitor is a key component in condenser microphones, for example.
A mechanical part of a magnetic tape recorder that controls the speed of the tape as it passes across the tape heads. Space-travel definitions aside, this is the name given to the part of a microphone that contains the diaphragm and active element, the mechanical structure that converts acoustic sound waves into electrical current.
A microphone that uses carbon granules to convert sound waves to electrical impulses. The carbon element sits between two plates; as sound waves hit the carbon granules, it generates changes in resistance between the plates, affecting the electrical signal. A microphone pickup pattern which is most sensitive to sound coming from the front, less from the sides, and least from the back of the diaphragm.
So named because the pickup pattern is in the shape of a heart cardio. The frequency of an audio signal that is most affected by an equalizer, either boosting or attenuating the frequency. The complete signal path from the sound source to the multitrack recorder or DAW. For example, an audio signal that travels from the microphone to the preamplifier, then into a channel strip on the mixing console, then is sent through the outputs into the recorder.
This is different from the monitor path, which feeds a mix of signals into monitor speakers or headphones without affecting the recorded signals.
The automatic adjusting of the speed of a recorder or sequencer to keep time with another recorder. A shorthand form of musical notation that provides the basic chord changes and essential rhythmic information of a song. Most commonly used by studio session players, rhythm sections or jazz bands to provide the skeletal structure of the song while allowing players room to create their own parts and improvise.
While lead sheets typically focus on melody line and chord structure, chord charts display mainly chord changes and rhythm. A signal sent by a device within the circuit that generates steady pulses or codes to keep other devices in sync with each other.
An example in the music world is sequencing via MIDI. The sequencer sends a clock signal so connected devices will play in time. A microphone placement technique that places the mic close to the sound source to pick up the direct sound and reject ambient sound. A stereo miking technique in which two microphones are placed with their heads as close to each other as possible. This prevents phase cancellation problems in the mix because the distance from the sound to either microphone is the same.
A signal processor serving as a combination compressor and expander, primarily used for noise reduction purposes in analog systems. The audio signal is compressed prior to recording, then expanded at the reproduction stage. Companding is the principle behind Dolby noise reduction systems. The rate by which a compressor attenuates an incoming signal, measured in decibels.
For example, a compression ratio of means the compressor will only allow a 1 dB increase in the signal for every 4 dB increase in the signal above the threshold. A signal processor or plug-in that reduces the dynamic range of an audio signal by amplifying its quieter sections and attenuating its louder ones. A microphone in which sound is converted into electrical current through changes in a capacitor.
The sound pressure waves move the diaphragm, producing changes in capacitance which are then changed into electrical voltage. A microphone designed to pick up vibrations from solid objects as opposed to vibrations in the air. In the broadest sense, a controller is any device that is used to control another device.
Other examples of controllers in the recording studio can include monitor controllers, DAW controllers and DJ controllers. The distance from the sound source at which the direct sound and the reverberant sound are at equal volume. Critical distance varies according to the space; in a room with absorbent walls, the critical distance will be further from the source, and in a reverberant room, the distance will be closer to the source.
An audio editing technique in which one sound is faded out as another sound is faded in, to create a seamless transition between the two. Club DJs also use crossfading to transition from one song to the next with no stops.
An audio filter component that splits an audio signal into two or more bands or signals, usually to be fed into different components of a loudspeaker system according to frequency range. The frequency at which the crossover stops sending the signal to one speaker and starts sending it to another. The unwanted leakage of an audio signal between two audio channels—for example, overlapping signals between channels on a mixing console, or overlapping audio between two tracks of audiotape.
In general terms, a cue is the starting point for a piece of music or section of music. A cue can even refer to an entire section of music being used for video production. Confusing, huh? The rate of reduction of the frequencies beyond the passband of a filter. The slope is described as the number of dB the filter reduces the signal for each octave past the cutoff frequency. One complete vibration or sound wave.
Abbreviation for Digital to Analog conversion, which changes digital data numbers digital audio signal into discrete voltage level.
The connection of three or more devices in a series, where the audio signal passes through one device to reach a second, and through the second to reach the third, etc.
The reduction of energy in a vibrating system, through friction. Can refer to the reduced amplitude in an electrical signal, or the stifled vibrations of a musical instrument for example, the damper pedal on an acoustic piano.
An abbreviation for Digital Audio Workstation, a device or software program designed for recording and mixing audio digitally. An abbreviation for decibel, a measurement ratio that compares signal strengths usually audio levels. A series of noise reduction systems, named for the company that developed them. DBX noise reduction has been less commercially successful than the more widely known Dolby systems, but is still found on occasion in recording studios.
The second stage of the four stages of a sound Attack, Decay, Sustain and Release, or ADSR , the decay of the sound is its gradual reduction in volume after reaching its peak in the attack stage.
Commonly used in miking choirs, orchestras and other large ensembles, but variations of the Decca tree technique are also being used today in surround sound situations. Most often used to describe audio levels. The process of demagnetizing an object. In the context of audio, degaussing essentially erases the recording on magnetic tape.
A preliminary recording that is intended to give the listener an idea of how a song could sound in a final production. To purposely cause an instrument or signal to play out of tune usually slightly. The part of a microphone that moves in response to sound waves, converting them to electrical signals.
The process of converting audio signals into numbers that represent the waveform, then storing these numbers as data. A stereo microphone placement technique that places two cardioid microphones about 20cm apart and set outward from each other at a degree angle to create a stereo image.
Particularly for stereo miking at close ranges. An electrical component that enables easy electrical current flow in one direction but not the other. In the recording studio, these are commonly found in the vacuum tubes of tube amplifiers. A small device that to converts an unbalanced, high-impedance speaker or instrument-level output to a balanced, low-impedance mic-level output. An output available on some consoles which is fed directly from the preamplifier stage of the input, bypassing the channel strips and faders.
The area that is effectively covered by the sound coming from a loudspeaker; specifically, the imaginary boundaries on either side of the speaker at which the sound level is 6 dB lower than if you were standing directly in front of the speaker.
Each speaker has both a horizontal and vertical dispersion angle. The technique of placing a microphone far from the sound source in order to pick up a combination of the direct and reflected sounds.
While electrical or audio distortion is typically unwanted and avoided, it is frequently used in controlled situations in audio to create certain desirable effects, particularly with electric guitars and amplifiers. The brand name of a manufacturer of noise reduction systems and other audio systems, to improve performance and fidelity of audio recording, playback, and transmission. The phenomenon in which the human ear perceives a change in the frequency pitch of a sound while the sound source is in motion.
As the sound source approaches, the sound waves travel a shorter distance to the ear, increasing the frequency of the waves and the pitch of the sound; as the sound source moves away, the sound waves must travel farther and farther, resulting in lower frequencies. A common example of this effect is an approaching emergency vehicle whose siren sounds higher as it approaches and lower after it passes. The Doppler Effect can be utilized in audio settings, for example, in the Leslie speaker in which an electric motor rotates the speakers inside the cabinet, constantly changing the distance between the sound source and the listener or microphone and creating its signature warbling vibrato effect.
A brief loss of audio signal on tape, or a brief loss of data in a digital audio file often due to a dropped sample , that can result in an unwanted dip in audio, a crackle or a pop. A specific sequence of drum sounds played by a drummer or sequenced into a drum machine for use in a song.
A notable example is a spoken-word voice-over track recorded over a musical track, where the music drops in volume when the speaker begins to speak.
Also called Moving Coil Microphone A microphone in which sound pressure waves are converted to an electrical audio signal by an induction coil moving within a magnetic field—a process often compared to a loudspeaker working in reverse. Dynamic microphones are less sensitive than condenser microphones, but can be effective for miking louder sound sources or for close-miking applications.
The process of automatically changing the level or gain to alter the level relationship of the loudest audio to the softest audio. Dynamic processors include compressors, limiters, expanders and gates.
The first stage of reverberation. The distinct repetition of an initial sound, caused by the reflection of the sound waves upon a surface. We recognize a sound as an echo when the distance between the source and the reflection is far enough apart that we can detect the time delay between one and the other.
Essentially, reverberation is the combination of many echoes occurring too rapidly to hear each individually. In the studio, echoes can be reproduced acoustically or simulated by a digital signal processor. An enclosed room designed with reflective, non-parallel surfaces for the purpose of creating acoustic echoes reverberation.
To change one or more parameters of a recorded sound after the fact. Analog editing would typically involve splicing the magnetic tape on which the audio signals were recorded.
These days, almost all editing in the studio is done via computer using a digital audio workstation DAW. Also called Guitar Processor A device that adds audio effects to a direct guitar signal, such as reverb, chorusing, flanging, delay, overdrive, amplifier simulation, etc.
They can also be found as presets in guitar amplifiers, or even as digital plug-ins within a DAW. A dielectric plate that is designed with permanent polarity, allowing it to function similarly to a magnet. A variation of condenser microphone that uses an electret instead of a capacitor.
Abbreviated EMF A field of magnetic energy put out because of current traveling through a conductor. The bane of audio professionals everywhere, EMI is a type of interference caused by nearby electromagnetic activity, which can be picked up by audio cables and equipment, causing unwanted noise, hum or buzz in audio systems.
Common causes of EMI in audio systems may include high-current power lines, fluorescent lighting, dimmer switches, computers, video monitors and radio transmitters. Negatively charged particles revolving around the nucleus of an atom. Electrical current is generated by electrons moving along a conductor, like a metallic wire. The envelope of a sound describes how a sound or audio signal varies in intensity over a period of time. A drawing of several curves showing how loud the tones of different frequencies would have to be played for a person to say they were of equal loudness.
An audio signal processor that uses one or more filters to boost or cut the amplitude volume of certain frequencies within the sound. A signal processor or plug-in that performs the opposite function of a compressor, expanding the dynamic range of an audio signal rather than compressing it. It accomplishes this by further reducing the amplitude of signals that drop below a set threshold. The rate by which an expander attenuates an incoming signal, measured in decibels.
For example, an expansion ratio of means the expander will reduce the signal by 2dB for every 1dB it drops below the threshold. If the signal falls 3dB below the threshold, the expander attenuates it by 6 dB, and so on. A gradual reduction of the level of the audio signal, or a gradual change of level from one pre-set level to another.
A control which adjusts the level gain or attenuation of an incoming signal to a channel or grouping of channels on a console. The region away from a loudspeaker at which the sound drops 6dB for each doubling of the distance, up to the critical distance. The beginning of the far field varies according to the size of the speaker, but in most cases the far field begins around 3 feet from the sound source. Audio engineers often use both near field and far field monitoring when fine-tuning a mix.
The return of a portion of the output signal back into the input of a system. This can be done in a controlled manner through a feedback circuit to alter the sound of an instrument most commonly electric guitars or analog synths. It can also describe the unwanted feedback loop created when an open microphone is picking up the sound from a nearby speaker, generating a loud, oscillating frequency that increases in intensity until the feedback loop is broken by turning off the mic or speaker, or by use of an equalizer to attenuate the frequency.
The control on a delay line or delay effects device that controls the amount of feedback into the system. A device that removes or attenuates signals with frequencies above or below the specified cutoff frequency. This was originally accomplished in analog tape recording by playing the original tape and the copy on two tape machines simultaneously, then physically pressing on the flange of one of the machines to alter the timing of the duplicate track.
These days, most flanging is done through delay boxes or digital plug-ins. Named after the two researchers who first plotted the curves. A stage monitoring system used in live audio. This mix is usually different from the FOH front-of-house mix that the audience hears, and is sometimes controlled by a second engineer through amplifiers and speakers separate from the main sound system.
This type of stage monitoring is frequently susceptible to feedback from the microphones, and in certain venues can cause unwanted reflective noise that makes it difficult for FOH engineers to create a good mix for the audience. For this reason, many live audio systems now use in-ear monitoring as an alternative to stage monitors to control the onstage noise and reduce the risk of feedback. An element in the sound of a voice or instrument that does not change frequency as different pitches are sounded.
These frequencies are what create timbre, that element of sound that creates the specific sound of a guitar, a flute, a male or female voice, etc. Examples include currently used physical formats such as vinyl records and compact discs; obsolete formats such as cassette tape, 8-track tape and DAT; analog recording staples such as reel-to-reel multitrack tape; and many different digital audio file formats such as mp3, WAV, WMA, AIFF and others.
The number of occurrences of a particular event within a certain amount of time. In audio and acoustics, frequency specifically refers to the number of complete cycles a vibration or waveform makes in a second, measured in cycles per second, or Hertz Hz. In sound, frequency determines what we hear as pitch. The longer the wavelength, the fewer the cycles per second, and the lower the pitch. A method of sound synthesis in which the frequencies generated by one oscillator the carrier are altered by the output of one or more additional oscillators operators to create a diversity of harmonically rich sounds.
Each instrument has a certain frequency range in which it can play; the human ear can also hear within a certain frequency range. The range between high and low frequencies that a component of an audio system can adequately handle, transmit or receive. In wireless microphone systems, frequency-agile describes the ability of the system to operate on a choice of different RF frequencies within a certain bandwidth.
Frequency-agile systems are preferred for live touring and in areas with high concentrations of radio signals like large cities because the RF frequency of the device can be changed to avoid interference. A now out-of-date protocol in which a sync tone is recorded onto a spare track of a multi-track tape recorder to enable electronic devices mainly drum machines to perform in sync with the tape.
Abbreviated FOH In live audio settings, the location in a venue opposite the stage, where live audio for the show is controlled and mixed. Also called fundamental frequency or first harmonic The lowest frequency present in the sounding of a note by musical instrument or voice. A device that changes the gain of an amplifier or circuit, often a knob potentiometer that can be turned. A term that describes the interconnection of multiple components in an audio system, and the amount of gain increase or reduction that occurs at each point.
A configuration with a good gain structure means that the components are working properly together to provide optimal gain with minimal distortion or noise. Also called Noise Gate A type of expander that completely or almost completely attenuates a signal once it drops below a certain level, rather than simply reducing the level.
A type of equalizer that can adjust various frequencies of the incoming signal using sliders that are assigned to specific frequency bands. An adapter that enables a three-prong power cord to plug into two-prong outlet. Some engineers wrongly use this plug to interrupt the ground connection and prevent buzz, but it is a VERY unsafe practice to break the ground connection using this plug without grounding the unit by another means.
A switch that breaks the connection between the ground point in one circuit and the ground point in another circuit, for the purpose of eliminating hum or buzz caused by ground loops.
A situation caused when one or more electronic devices are connected to the same ground at different points. The devices operate at different ground potentials, which creates voltage along the ground, resulting in a low-frequency hum that can be annoying at best and cause damage to gear at worst. The best resolution for ground loops is to ground all devices at the same point using a central power source.
An alternative solution is to break the loop via ground lift switches or plugs, but this should be avoided when possible as it is considered an unsafe management of electricity. In audio, group delay is a phenomenon within all electronic audio devices e. In simpler terms, lower frequencies are delivered slightly more slowly than higher ones. In all devices, there is an inherent delay between input and output of the signal, but group delay specifically deals with the time delays between specific frequencies of the sound.
The goal in any configuration is to keep the group delay as small as possible; in cases of extremely poor configurations, the delays between highs and lows can be audible. An electric guitar or device played like a guitar that transmits MIDI data that can be used to control synthesizers and sound modules. Also called Precedence Effect Simply stated, a factor in human hearing in which we perceive the source of a sound by its timing rather than its sound level. In his research, Helmut Haas determined that the first sound waves to reach our ears help our brains determine where the sound is coming from, rather than its reflection or reproduction from another source.
The reflection of the sound must be at least 10dB louder than the original source, or delayed by more than 30ms where we can perceive it as an echo , before it affects our perception of the direction of the sound. This is what helps us distinguish the original sound source without being confused by reflections and reverberations off of nearby surfaces. Understanding the Haas effect is particularly useful in live audio settings, especially in large venues where loudspeakers are time-delayed to match the initial sound waves coming from the source.
Hall programs are characterized by pre-delay of up to 25 ms. In compression, refers to a more abrupt introduction of compression of the signal once the sound level crosses the threshold. Whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency that occur naturally within the playing of a tone. Mathematically, if the fundamental frequency is x, the harmonics would be 2x, 3x, 4x, etc. For example, if the fundamental frequency of the note played is Hz or A , the harmonics would be Hz, Hz, Hz, and so on.
The presence of harmonics in the tone is what creates the timbre of an instrument or voice. In tape recording, an electromagnetic transducer that magnetically affects the tape passing over it. An erase head creates a powerful electromagnetic field to the tape to erase previous signals from the tape. The difference in dB between normal operating level and clipping level in an amplifier or audio device. Also describes the difference in dB between the peak levels of a recording and the point at which the signal distorts.
In microphones, Hi-Z is typically designated as 10, or more ohms. An audio filter that attenuates signals below a certain frequency the cut-off frequency and passes signals with frequencies that are higher. The hum reflects the fundamental frequency of the current 60 Hz in the U.
A variation of the cardioid microphone pick up sensitivity pattern in which the shape of the optimal pickup area is tighter and more directional than cardioid. Hypercardioid microphones are most sensitive directly on-axis in front of the microphone, and begins rejecting sounds between degrees off-axis, depending on the tightness of the pattern.
Refers to the ability to localize a specific sound within the sound space. In live audio and sound reinforcement, the principle of imaging is the same, the goal being to make the audience perceive the sounds as coming from performers on the stage, rather than from the speakers.
Refers to the resistance of a circuit or device to alternating current, which can be mathematically described as the ratio of voltage to current. Differences in impedance between devices in the studio can affect how they work together. Impedance is abbreviated by the letter Z, and measured in ohms W.
An audio mixing console that is designed and configured so each channel strip can be used for both recording and monitoring functions during multitrack recording.
This configuration is in contrast to split mixing consoles, which requires separate channels on the board for recording and monitoring functions. The desirable situation in which two or more devices and their respective audio signals are on the same side of the polarity spectrum, producing waveforms that do not conflict or cancel each other out.
A characteristic of electrical conductors in which electrical charge voltage is produced or stored magnetically due to the natural resistance to change in the electrical current. Inductance is an electromagnetic principle that can either assist in audio applications as in loudspeakers or cause resistance as in using speaker wire whose gauge is too low for the application. A device usually a coil of wire that converts electrical energy into stored magnetic energy as electrical current passes through it.
Commonly found in a variety of audio applications such as guitar pickups and loudspeakers. A loudspeaker mount or enclosure designed so that sound waves coming from the front theoretically do not reach the back, preventing the sound waves from cancelling each other out. Of course, this is physically impossible, so infinite baffles are designed to replicate this as much as possible.
Examples of infinite baffles are mounting the speaker on a wall of an enclosed room, or building it inside a sealed cabinet large enough to prevent rear sounds from affecting the cone from the back. The jack or physical location where a device receives a signal. Also refers to the incoming signal itself. A setting on many DAWs that allows you to monitor the live input signal coming into the DAW as opposed to the recorded signal.
Commonly used to add processing such as reverb, compression or EQ to a channel or group of channels. A device that has a power amplifier and speaker to reproduce the signal put out by an electric instrument. Feeding the output of an electric instrument like an electric guitar directly to the recording console or tape recorder, as opposed to miking the amplifier.
A substance such as glass, air, plastic, etc. Any device or connection point that allows one unit to work, drive or communicate with another unit, or that allows a human to interact with a computer or other electronics. There are many examples of interfaces in professional audio situations, including MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface ; audio interfaces which connect audio inputs to your computer; and even your DAW program, which displays a screen that enables you to assign instruments, adjust settings, record, mix and playback.
Even the mixing console is an interface of sorts, connecting the many elements of the control room. Distortion caused by two or more audio signals of different frequencies interacting with one another. A mathematical rule that describes an inverse relationship between one quantity and the square of another quantity. In plain English, one number goes down by a certain amount each time the other number doubles.
In audio and acoustics, the inverse square law says that in an open sound field with no obstructions, the sound pressure level will drop by half 6dB each time the distance from the sound source is doubled.
This equation is quite useful to audio engineers trying to provide sound in open-air settings, for example. For example, acoustically treated isolation booths are often used to record vocals or instruments in the studio to keep outside noises from bleeding into the recording microphone, or likewise to keep vocals or other sounds away from instrument mics during live recording sessions.
This function is mainly used for replacing code that has become degraded. An abbreviation for kilohertz Hz, or cycles per second. Most commonly used in the studio for describing audio frequency ranges or digital sampling rates. A function on a compressor that determines how abruptly or gradually compression begins once the sound level crosses the threshold.
Refers to almost any blending of similar multiple musical parts or sounds at once, often combined on one channel or assigned to one controller. In sound design, it also refers to blending multiple samples example: two or more drum sounds to create a fuller sound. A shorthand form of music notation similar to a chord chart that displays the basic essential elements of a song so musicians can follow along without the full notation of every note or expression.
Lead sheets most commonly include a melody line written in music notation with chord changes above the staff, and lyrics below it. Sounds from other instruments and sound sources that were not intended to be picked up by the microphone. A type of compressor that sharply reduces limits the gain of the signal when the audio level reaches a certain threshold, typically used to prevent overload and signal peaking.
A compressor effectively becomes a limiter when its ratio is or higher. The standard audio signal level that runs through interconnecting cables in the studio or sound system, before the signal is amplified and sent to the speakers. Line level is often described in comparison to mic level or instrument level which usually require preamplification to bring them up to line level. Any output that sends out a line level signal, such as the output of a console that feeds a recorder.
So called, not just because there is room for live performances, but because the room has been acoustically treated to produce a pleasing amount of live reverberation. Before digital audio and sampling, loops were created by looping tape.
Today, loops are used in samples to sustain a sampled note for as long as the note is triggered, while drum loops and other music loops are common in modern music production.
A term referring to how the human ear perceives incoming sound waves. We commonly think of loudness as it relates to the volume of a sound, but this is an indirect relationship.
In acoustic terms, volume is more about the amplitude of the sound waves, while loudness describes how our ears hear the intensity of those waves.
A circuit that emits low-frequency electronic waveforms below the audible level of human hearing 20 Hz or less. This low-frequency waveform creates a rhythmic pulse that is used to modulate various parameters in the audio signal, such as pitch or volume.
LFOs are frequently used in samplers, synthesizers and signal processors to create such effects as vibrato, tremolo, and phasing. An audio filter or device that attenuates signals above a certain frequency the cut-off frequency and passes signals with frequencies that are lower than the cut-off. Recording tape consisting of a plastic strip coated by magnetic materials, finely ground iron oxide rust particles. Commonly used for analog recording. The characteristic of hearing by which loud sounds prevent the ear from hearing softer sounds of similar frequency.
Also refers to the obscuring of softer sounds by louder ones. The grouping of a number of beats in music. Often used as shorthand for megahertz 1,, Hertz, Mhz or megabytes 1,, bytes, MB. Meters usually measure peak values or RMS values.
The selector switch on the input of a console channel that determines which input jack will feed the console; also the selector switch on an audio interface or other device that sets the input level to receive either a microphone level or line level signal. The very low audio voltage level emitted by a studio microphone.
The signal must go through a preamplifier to be increased to line level before entering the console. A clock signal conveyed by MIDI that is used by the connected sequencers and musical devices to stay in sync with one another. Can refer to two different elements of MIDI, depending on the context.
A sub-protocol that was added into MIDI to enable the transfer of digitally recorded samples between instruments, storage units or sound modules without converting them to analog. A device or software that can record and play back MIDI data, controlling the performance of MIDI musical instruments or devices in a series of timed steps.
A port that puts out a MIDI signal that is the same as the incoming MIDI signal, effectively relaying the signal to another device without altering or changing it.
The processes of creating a final mix by combining multiple audio tracks into a single track or two-channel stereo track prior to the mastering stage.
Refers to any process in which a parameter of one signal is systematically affected by the introduction of another signal. In audio, this results in a change in the sound. A self-contained group of circuits and controls. In the recording studio, modules are often contained in interchangeable housing for installation on rack mounts, and can include amplifiers, equalizers, effects processors and sound modules MIDI instruments to be activated by an external controller.
In the digital space, plug-ins, software synths, samplers and plug-ins are also described as modules. This can include studio monitors in the control room for listening to the mix, and headphones in the booths or live room for the performers to hear a mix of the tracks while they are performing. In live performance settings, the monitor mix is often controlled by a separate audio engineer running a separate sound board.
A signal path separate from the channel path that allows the engineer to listen to what is being recorded without affecting the signal being fed to the multitrack recorder or DAW. The section of the console that is used to create a rough mix so the engineer can hear what is being recorded without effecting the levels being fed to the multitrack recorder or DAW. A feature in some consoles in which fader changes can be pre-programmed to occur automatically during playback of a multitrack recording.
A small device that tests electrical voltage, current, and resistance. Multimeters are useful in recording studios for calibrating electrical systems and troubleshooting problems.
Also called tracking or multitracking The heartbeat of the recording studio, multitrack recording is process of recording a collective of sound sources onto separate tracks, each with its own audio channel, then combining the tracks to play back simultaneously. Recording can be done either one track or instrument at a time to be combined later or by recording the performers onto separate tracks as they play together live.
These signals were originally recorded onto multitrack analog tape, but today they can also be recorded digitally as separate audio files into a digital audio workstation DAW.
A switch on a console or other piece of audio equipment that turns off the input or output, or a matching button on the virtual audio control space of a DAW. The individual channels on a console each have a mute switch that can cut the signal for that channel. The standard unit in measuring the amount of magnetic strength on analog tape.
A Weber is a unit of magnetic strength, but it is too large a unit to apply to the magnetism in tape recorders, so nanowebers is used instead. Nanowebers per meter of tape effectively describes the signal strength that is being recorded to tape.
The area between feet from the sound source. A portion of the output signal that is fed back to the input of an amplifier with its phase inverted from the original output signal. This has a dampening effect on the output, effectively cancelling out a portion of the volume.
Describes any unpleasant, objectionable or unintended sound frequencies present in the audio signal. All electronic equipment produces some type of noise, which may be described as a hiss or buzz that can be heard during quiet or otherwise silent passages.
Engineers may also deliberately run a noise signal through a sound system for testing purposes. The level of the noise present below the audio signal, measured in dB.
Every electronic device emits a minimum level of noise, even when no audio is traveling through it; this is described as its noise floor. Generally speaking, the lower the noise floor in these devices, the higher the quality of the device. The noise floor also translates to the recorded signal; the noise floor of a recording is the sum of all the noise generated by connected devices.
The objective is always to keep the noise floor as low as possible. A gate that is used reduce audible noise by automatically turning off an audio channel when the signal is not present. A feature in recording systems most common in Digital Audio Workstations, or DAWs in which the original signal or content stays intact while edits are performed, allowing the engineer to revert to the original version at any time.
To apply a fixed amount of gain to audio so that the highest peak is set at the highest acceptable recording level. Describes the configuration within a patch bay in which the jacks form a connected pathway until a patch cord is inserted to change the path. A band stop filter set to reject frequencies within a very narrow band.
In digital recording, the highest frequency that can be recorded and reproduced properly, equivalent to a one-half the sampling rate. For example, with the common sampling rate of 44, kHz per second, the Nyquist frequency would be 22, kHz. Aliasing begins to occur with frequencies that exceed this threshold. The lowest sampling rate that can be used to record and reproduce a given audio signal, equivalent to twice the highest frequency.
If the highest frequency found in an analog signal or sound is 18, kHz, theoretically the signal must be sampled at a minimum of 36, kHz per second—otherwise, the signal is considered to be undersampled and aliasing will occur.
This is essentially the inverse principle of the Nyquist Frequency. An interval or difference of pitch of 12 half-steps. In our standard tuning system, the higher note in an octave is exactly double the frequency of the lower note.
Veering away from the imaginary line axis directly in front of the receiving end of a microphone. Measured as degrees of an angle.
For example, a sound coming from directly behind the microphone is said to be degrees off-axis. The unit used to measure the amount of opposition impedance to electrical current flow in a signal or device. An electrical circuit that is disconnected, interrupted or incomplete, preventing the flow of electricity. The opposition to the flow of electrical current by the output circuits of an amplifier or other device.
The process of recording an additional musical performance over an existing recording, usually on its own track. Overdubbing has become a common recording technique with the advent of multitrack recording, first on multitrack analog tape, and more recently via computers and Digital Audio Workstations DAWs. This is accomplished by controlling the balance of the signal between the left and right speakers so the ear hears the sound as coming from a particular point in the sonic space between left and right.
Several jacks that are wired so that each connection is wired to the corresponding connection of other jacks. A connector that is able to transmit and receive digital data at the same time though different pins.
An equalizer in which all parameters of equalization can be adjusted to any amount, including the center frequency, the amount of boost or cut, and the bandwidth. This concept is a key part of creating sounds in synthesizers: in additive synthesis, a number of partials are combined to create a certain tone.
In audio applications, this usually refers to a piece of gear that does not include an amplifier as part of its design. For example, active speakers are self-powered, while passive speakers require an external amplifier in order to reproduce sound. A panel or component containing a series of jacks with connections for most of the inputs and outputs of the console and components in the studio, used for the purpose of organizing, managing and regulating signal flow.
An insulated cable with plugs on each end used to route audio signals. Patch cords are typically thought of as short cables used to make connections in the patch bay hence the name ; however, patch cords facilitate almost any kind of audio connection between devices, can come in a wide range of lengths, and can include a number of different types of connectors.
Short for Signal Path, the way in which current does or may travel in a circuit or through a device. NOT to be confused with amplitude peaks. A meter which detects the absolute peak value of a waveform, as opposed to the RMS value. The measure of the maximum positive or negative value amplitude of a waveform at any moment. In audio, this is visually depicted as the farthest point of the waveform above or below the zero axis.
The measure of the total amplitude between positive and negative peaks in an audio signal. Equal to twice the peak value for a sine wave. A board with several guitar pedals attached and inter-connected so that a guitar player can conveniently activate a number of different effects.
A system used to supply DC voltage to condenser mics and other components through the audio cables, eliminating the need for external power supplies. The increased audio energy that happens when waveforms are in similar phase relationships, resulting in an increase in volume up to twice what it should be.
The opposite of phase addition, this is the reduction of energy that occurs when two similar waveforms that are out of phase with one another and begin cancelling each other out, either greatly reducing or eliminating the volume. When two identical wave forms are completely out of phase by degrees , the result in theory is a total silencing or cancellation of the signal.
A change in the sound because of a phase shift in the signal. Sometimes used in synthesizers as a method of altering the wave shape or adding harmonics to the sound.
Any of a number of processes used to help synchronize signals or devices by correcting phase differences. For example, in analog tape machines, phase locking helps to keep multiple machines synced together by sensing phase differences in the playback of pilot tunes by the two machines and adjusting the speed to eliminate the phase difference. In synthesizers, phase locking controls one tone generator so that it begins its waveform in phase with the signal from another tone generator.
Phase-locked loops PLL are reference signals used in the clock functions of electronic devices. An effects sound created by varying the phase shift of an audio signal, then mixing it with the direct signal. A unit of apparent loudness, numerically equal to the same number of dB as a tone playing at Hz. For example, a sound is said to be 60 phon if it is perceived to be as loud as a Hz tone playing at 60dB. The shape of the area in front of or around the microphone from where it evenly picks up sound.
A rubber or plastic wheel on a tape recorder that pinches the tape between it and the capstan, allowing the capstan to pull the tape. A noise signal similar to white noise, containing all audible frequencies, but with equal energy per octave as opposed to all frequency bands. Engineers frequently use pink noise as a tool to tune and calibrate audio equipment.
A device that detects pitch in an analog audio signal and translates it into MIDI information. A device that detects the frequency of an audio waveform and changes it into a control voltage, which is in turn fed to an oscillator that produces a pitch at the same frequency. A device that produces artificial reverberation by sending vibrations across a metal plate via a transducer similar to a speaker driver.
Physical plate reverbs today are considered a vintage form of artificial reverb; nowadays, most plate reverb effects are emulated digitally by plugins or reverb units. A configuration on a console that allows quick playback of the signal previously recorded on tape or via DAW via the monitor mixer.
In condenser and electret microphones, the introduction of a small amount of electrical current to create the magnetism by which the capacitor converts audio signals to electrical current. Iron or other magnetic material that conducts magnetic force for use in transducers like record heads, playback heads, microphones, speakers, etc. A term commonly used to describe synths and keyboards. A pitch change that smoothly glides from one pitch to another. Also refers to the synthesizer mode or MIDI command that allows or causes this to happen.
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